The biodiversity and distribution of organisms within an ecosystem is due to both abiotic non-living and biotic living factors. Abiotic factors are non-living variables that can influence where organisms can live. Examples of abiotic factors include:.
The values of the abiotic factors in an ecosystem affect the range of species that are found. This is because the individuals in each species are adapted to occupy particular niches. Abiotic factors can all be measured to show the living conditions in an ecosystem. Light meters can be used to measure light intensity.
The meter is held at the soil surface and pointed in the direction of the maximum light intensity, and then the meter is read. Errors can be made when measuring light intensity by accidentally shading the light meter. The reliability of the results can be checked by taking many samples.
Soil moisture and soil pH meters are also available. Both are used by simply pushing the probe into the soil and reading the meter.
Errors can be made when measuring pH and soil moisture when probes are not cleaned between readings. The temperature of the air can be measured with a thermometer.
The temperature of the soil can be measured with a temperature probe. Abiotic factors The biodiversity and distribution of organisms within an ecosystem is due to both abiotic non-living and biotic living factors. Examples of abiotic factors include: light intensity temperature soil pH soil moisture The values of the abiotic factors in an ecosystem affect the range of species that are found.
Abiotic measurement equipment Abiotic factors can all be measured to show the living conditions in an ecosystem. Measuring light intensity Light meters can be used to measure light intensity. Measuring the pH and moisture of the soil Soil moisture and soil pH meters are also available. Measuring temperature The temperature of the air can be measured with a thermometer.
National 5 Subjects National 5 Subjects up.The abiotic factors that affect plant growth and development include topography, soil, and climatic factors. It is measured by dividing the vertical distance from the foot to the top of the land by the horizontal distance between those points, multiplied by The steepness of a slope affects plant growth through differential incidence of solar radiation, wind velocity and soil type.
A steep slope is susceptible of rapid surface runoff and soil erosion which cause soil degradation. The relationship of this abiotic factor to temperature is like that of distance from the equator to the arctic poles.
According to Stilingtemperature decreases by 1 C for every m increase in altitude in dry air. Coconut prefers an elevation not exceeding meters above sea level masl PCARRD ; for better quality, tea is best grown above masl while rubber requires not more than masl because at higher elevation latex flow is restricted Abellanosa and Pava ; the seasonality of ripening of various fruit crops, e.
The effect of land elevation on plant growth and development is apparent when exploring a high-rise mountain.
Dominance of certain plant types varies with elevation. With change in height from sea level to 16, feet 4, Likewise, the influence of this abiotic factor on plant growth and distribution is noticeable. There is a change from tropical vegetation at the coastal base to the oak forest, then conifers, and finally a tundra-like scene with hardy grasses, mosses and dwarf shrubs. At the arctic top, only occasional lichens are found on exposed rocks. In the tropics, the timber line above which no more tree grows may be found between 13, to 14, feet above sea level or 3, masl Went and The Editors of Life It is composed of eroded rock, mineral nutrients, decaying plant and animal matter, water and air.
This last property though is treated under biotic rather than abiotic factors of the environment. Click here to read the importance of microbes in improving agricultural productivity. However, the former, being compact, tend to have poor drainage and aeration. The organic matter content of the soil is also important in assessing the capacity of the soil to make certain elements available to plants.
Yes, plants are not soil eaters.
Effects of Biotic Factors on Vegetation
There's no question about it, there's no more doubt about it. Indeed, it has already been established since a long time ago that this abiotic factor is not essential to plant growth and development and to crop productivity. These make plants grow, enable them to complete their life cycles, and allow them to produce the yields that humans harvest.
Brief review of the environmental factors that influence crop growth and yield. With examples of the role of animals. Reviews plant growth factors, their main divisions into genetic and environmental, manipulation, and their combined roles on expression of traits. Biotic factors interact with plants.
Their influence on plant growth and development varies with the type of interaction. Enumerates and briefly discusses the different climatic factors affecting crop growth, development and yield, with link to more specific pages.Humans, animals and plants are globally distributed, they are termed cosmopolitan in their distribution some other animals have restricted distribution and they are said to be endemic, there may be some plants such as coconuts Cocos nucifera which have very wide endemic range which are defined throughout the tropics and they are said to be pan-tropical in their distribution.
However, coconuts are found Africa, tropical Asia, and South America. Endemic -same and similar specie occurring in the same geographical location and in no other place. Some animal species are restricted to a particular continent for instance, the giraffe is only found in Africa and in no other part of the world, the marmoset monkeys are found only in South America.
However, there are also plants and animals that are restricted to a very small area of the world.
For instance, the California red wood trees which are likely restricted to California; they live for over years and they are the longest trees in the world, they cant be found in anywhere else in the world. These California red woods are example of plants with a very narrow endemic range. In some cases, the pattern of distribution of plants and animals may be discontinuous or disjoint.
When it is discontinuous or disjoint, then we agree that that particular animal or plant may be found in two widely separate areas in other word; they may be found let say in Central America and in Indonesia and not in any other area in between them. However, it is always the biogeographers task to find out how this type of distribution came about in view of the fact that the distance which separates them is so great that makes it seem impossible for the species to have migrated from one area to another.
An example of this type of distribution of animal is called Tapir- an animal that is found in South America and Malaysia. Certainly, questions as to how this distribution came about must have given rise to a number of theories which shall be considered later.
Abiotic and Biotic Factors
Some of these theories include. Global distribution of plants and animals depends on abiotic and biotic factors, the abiotic are the non-living factors and also the biotic factors or the living factors.
These two factors are further classified into two categories such as physical factors and biological factors. The physical factors consist of rocks; food, air, soil, water, nutrients, humidity, temperature light, and salinity among others while the biological factor include predation, diseases, and competition, human and animals.
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Agricultural Science. Second Term. A biotic factor is any living component that affects another organism, including animals that consume the organism in question, and the living food that the organism consumes. Biotic factors are the living components of an ecosystem. Biotic factors refer to the living organisms, both macro- and micro-organisms, including the various ways in which they affect plant growth and development.
These organisms are the living components of the environment which influence the manifestation of the genetic factor on phenotypic expression. Macroorganisms refer to the animals such as humans and other mammals, birds, insects, arachnids, molluscs, and plants while microorganisms include fungi, bacteria, virus and nematodes.
Agricultural production sometimes give low or high yield in terms produce. Here are some factors affecting production:. Soil Organisms. I really love this. I do visit study. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
Previous Next. S 1Second Term 1 Comment. The effects of these living factors on plant expression may be advantageous or disadvantageous, depending on how they interact with the plant. Related Posts. April 9th, 0 Comments.
Environmental Factors that Influence Plant Growth
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Biotic factors affect population of organisms. The term is widely used in ecology and is used to refer to life. Therefore, biotic factors refer to activities of a living thing that affects the living of another organism in its environment. Biotic factors in a community are essential in creating a balance of life in the ecosystem. Competition for food is an example of biotic factor that affects population growth. A red and grey squirrel living in the same community competes for food.
They look for food from the same source. Snails cannot reproduce well in an environment with low calcium despite the amount of food available to them. This is because they need minerals for shell growth.
Therefore, the quality, type and quantity of food in a habitat are very important. Predators are also biotic factors that affect population growth. This is common in predator prey relationships. For instance, the moose population is very high in Isle Royale where the wolves, have more access to food by preying on the moose. This is a factor that supports or increases the growth of wolf population. When prey population grows bigger, it becomes easy for predators to find food.
When predator population falls, prey increases in number. Parasites are biotic factors that can lead to growth of population. Parasites often live on a host organism causing harm to the host for instance a tick on a cow and the Ascaris roundworm on pigs. The Ascaris roundworm relies on pigs for food.
The parasite lives on the digestive tract of the animal for food as well as reproduction. In the long run, the pig falls sick and can easily die.
Parasites also cause diseases that slow population growth by affecting the reproductive system as well as reproductive rate of organisms.
Ecological Factors that Affect the Growth of Plants (With Diagrams)
Disease is also a biotic factor that reduces population. It affects populations in many parts of the globe. In the yearthere was an outbreak of influenza.
It killed 20 to 40 million people across the globe. This was a large number compared to the First World War. Diseases also affect plant population. Wind transmits diseases from one plant to the other.This article throws light upon the nine main environmental factors that influence plant growth.
The factors are: 1. Temperature 2. Moisture Supply 3. Radiant Energy 4. Composition of the Atmosphere 5. Soil Structure and Composition of Soil Air 6. Soil Reaction 7.
Biotic Factors 8. Supply of Nutrient Elements 9. Absence of Growth Inhibiting Substances. At temperatures much below or above these limits growth decreases rapidly. Optimum temperatures for plant growth are dynamic since they change with the species and varieties, duration of exposure, age of the plant, stage of development etc.
The important plant metabolic processes like photosynthesis, respiration, evapotranspiration etc. Besides these, temperature influences the absorption of water and nutrients and also influences the microbial activity which ultimately affects the plant growth. The growth of various plants is proportional to the amounts of water present, for growth is restricted both at very low and very high soil moisture regimes.
Water is essential to plants for the manufacture of carbohydrates, to maintain hydration of protoplasm, and as a vehicle for the translocation of foods and mineral elements. Internal moisture stress causes reduction both in cell division and cell elongation, hence in growth.
In addition to these, the various physiological processes in plants are also affected by water stress. Soil moisture regime also has a pronounced effect on the uptake of plant nutrients.The biotic factors include the influence of living organisms, both plants and animals upon the vegetation. Any activity of the living organism which may cause marked effects upon vegetation in any way is referred to as biotic effect.
The biotic effect may be both direct and indirect. It may be beneficial to the plants in some respects but detrimental in other respects. The plants live together in a community and influence one another. In the forest there are many plant communities, such as trees, shrubs, herbs, mosses, lichens. These communities interact with one another and adjust according to environmental conditions. Trees cast their shadow on many shade-loving plants which grow around or beneath them.
The micro-organisms, such as bacteria, algae, fungi, and viruses affect the life of plants of a given area in many ways. Besides these, the decomposition of dead parts of plant bodies causes significant addition of organic compounds and humus to soil. In this way, vegetation modifies the habitat to a considerable extent. Similarly, animals which are in close association with plants also affect the plant life in one or several ways.
Many animals use plants as their food and for shelter as well. Besides animals, the man is most significant agent for modifying the vegetation. Grazing means eating away of un-harvested herbs as forage by animals Fig. The animals destroy a large part of Vegetation by grazing and browsing.Year 8 Agriculture - Factors affecting plant growth
Some animals prefer to graze and browse on some particular plant species they show selective grazing and browsing, e. Small annual plants become uprooted and disappear after being grazed. In browsing, taller plants such as trees and shrubs are little affected. Various other effects of grazing and browsing are summarized briefly in the following points:.